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A Brief Guide to Studying Sunni Aqidah

21 Jan

Disclaimer: No polemics please in the comments. This is purely for academic interest.

The following guide gives a decent overview of the main works of the Sunni schools in ‘aqidah. They are by no means comprehensive, but are fairly representative of each school. One who reads further into ‘aqidah finds that within each school there are a number of internal differences, often historical but even at times contemporary.

Athari

Beginner

  • Lam’at al-I’tiqad by Ibn Qudamah
  • Muqadimat al-Risalah by Ibn Abi Zayd
  • Bayan I’tiqad Ahl al-Sunnah by al-Tahawi

Intermediate

  • Sharh ‘Aqidah al-Tahawiyah by Ibn Abi al-‘Izz
  • ‘Aqidat al-Salaf wa Ashab al-Hadith by al-Sabuni
  • al-Shari’ah by al-Ajuri

Advanced

  • Sharh Usul al-I’tiqad Ahl al-Sunnah by al-Lalika’i

Ash’ari

Beginner

  • Qawa’id al-Aqa’id by al-Ghazali
  • al-Kharidah al-Bahiyah by Ahmad al-Dardir
  • Jawharat al-Tawhid by al-Laqqani
  • Umm al-Barahin by al-Sanusi

Intermediate

  • Tuhfat al-Murid ‘ala Jawharat al-Tawhid by al-Bajuri
  • Tawali’ al-Anwar by al-Baydawi
  • al-I’tiqad by al-Bayhaqi

Advanced

  • al-Irshad by al-Juwayni
  • al-Ibana by al-Ash’ari
  • al-Mujarrad by Ibn Furak
  • al-Tamhid by al-Baqillani

Maturidi

Beginner

  • Bad’ al-Amali by al-Ushi
  • ‘Umdat al-Aqidah by al-Nasafi

Intermediate

  • Sharh ‘Aqidat al-Nasafi by al-Taftazani
  • al-Musayara by Ibn al-Human

Advanced

  • Tabsirat al-Adillah by al-Makhluli
  • Kitab al-Tawhid by al-Maturidi
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45 Comments

Posted by on January 21, 2015 in Aqidah

 

45 responses to “A Brief Guide to Studying Sunni Aqidah

  1. reflexionismo

    January 21, 2015 at 5:13 pm

    Salam alaikum

    Shouldn’t you include at least one Ibn Taymiyya book in Athari? The ommission is confusing.

    And does al-Ibana really represent Ashari thought? My perception is many Asharis have a problem with it.

    Apart from that, interesting. Jzk.

    Sal

     
    • Al-Asiri

      January 21, 2015 at 5:56 pm

      Wa ‘alaykum salam. Please read the disclaimer and opening paragraph. This is brief, not comprehensive. Earlier Athari books are good representations and do not omit what is necessary to know. Omissions do not imply anything. One could just as equally enquire why there is no Ahmad on the Athari list al-Razi on the Ash’ari list.

      Yes, most contemporary Ash’aris have a problem with al-Ibana, but nevertheless it is still an Ash’ari text. I don’t want to get into polemics about which phase of al-Ash’ari’s life in which it was written. As I mentioned, there are historical differences within each school. Early Ash’aris (pre-Juwayni) have some notable differences with later ones. However, this is not the place for such discussions. Wajazakum.

       
  2. m7ia

    January 22, 2015 at 2:33 am

    Jazakum Allahu khayra, interesting lists. Any particular reason the Maturidi list is so spare? 🙂

     
    • Al-Asiri

      January 22, 2015 at 1:07 pm

      Wa jazakum. The Maturidi list is sparse because the Maturidi school was based in Transoxania which was devastated by the Mongol onslaught. Not much significant development happened thereafter. Some of the earlier texts also are not representative as they exclude the Ash’aris from Ahl al-Sunnah. There was a lot of strife between Ash’ari/Shafi’is and Maturidi/Hanafis during the Seljuq Sultanate. This should be borne in mind when reading fiqh or ‘aqidah works from that milieu. The Nasafi creed is by far the most popular and representative Maturidi creed. Other texts, such as al-Kishi’s al-Tamhid and al-Bazdawi’s Usul al-Din, are difficult to read without commentary. Al-Makhluli’s Tabsirat al-Adilla is also very difficult, but perhaps I should add more to the list, whilst remaining brief.

       
  3. Han Hsien Liew

    January 22, 2015 at 7:09 am

    Thank you so much for sharing. Are the levels (beginner, intermediate, advanced) based on your own classification or based on the curriculums of jurists during the classical period? I am interested in the issue of the imamate/caliphate in ‘aqida, so it would be interesting to see how the issue differs based on the classifications you laid down in the post.

     
    • Al-Asiri

      January 22, 2015 at 1:13 pm

      The classifications are based on ease. One excellent approach to studying ‘aqidah is to look at chronological developments. One finds that some schools developed quite significantly from the doctrines of the founders. Your interest in imamate/caliphate, for example, is a political question. It was not always a point of agreement in the first two centuries. By the third century, Sunnis developed a formative political theory and placed it in creedal texts. Denial of these political tenants takes one out of Sunnism, not Islam. This is a subtle point that is sadly muddled.

       
      • Han Hsien Liew

        January 22, 2015 at 4:39 pm

        Thanks a lot for your reply!

         
  4. Al-Asiri

    January 22, 2015 at 7:10 pm

    You are most welcome.

     
  5. Al-Asiri

    January 23, 2015 at 11:42 am

    Hatim al-Awni is a respected hadith scholar in Makka. In the clip he states that the Ash’ari school are from Ahl al-Sunnah. Ibn Taymiyyah deemed them from Ahl al-Hadith till Ibn Asakir (d. 571). It was only after the fitna of al-Qushayri (d.465) that splits between Ash’aris and the Athari/Hanbalis began. He adds that al-Azhar, the Ash’ari university, is a fortress of Ahl al-Sunnah.

    N.B. The fitna of al-Qushayri was between the Ash’aris and the Hanafis/Mu’tazila.

     
    • m7ia

      January 23, 2015 at 2:16 pm

      Very interesting, jazakum Allahu khayra shaykh. Where could one read more about this?

       
    • Ibn Masud

      February 22, 2015 at 8:03 am

      Shaykh al Islam Taqi al-Din al-Subki who was the Mujadid of Islam in the time of ibn Taymiyya said he and his Followers were from the Deviant Hashwiyya Sect, and they were a Minority Fringe Group who would Teach their Beliefs in Secret. The Hashwiya sect were a deviant sect in the time of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Ibn Taymiyah’s “Aqeedah” is a direct copy and paste of there teachings if you compare writings of the two. For example his famous declaration that Allah’s decent was literal after which he took two steps down from his Mimbar to illustrate it’s literalness was directly lifted from their books word for word. Ibn Taymiyah eventually gave up these beliefs and accepted the Ashari Aqedah towards the end of his life, Imam Dahabi Ibn Taymiyah’s student documented under his biography of Imam Ahsari’a that Ibn Taymiya died on the Ashari Aqeedah, his conversion was mass witnessed and he signed a document to that effect.

      Shaykh al-Islam Taqi al-Din al-Subki (D. 756AH) on ibn Taymiyya and his followers being from the deviant Hashwiyya sect, and that they were a minority fringe group who would teach their beliefs in secret

      “As for the Hashwiyya, they are a despicable and ignorant lot who claim to belong to the school of (Imam) Ahmad (ibn Hanbal)… They have corrupted the creed of a few isolated Shafi’is, especially some of the Hadith scholars among them who are lacking in reason… They were held in utmost contempt, and then towards the end of the seventh century (AH) a man appeared who was diligent, intelligent and well-read and did not find a Shaykh to guide him, and he is of their creed and is brazen and dedicated to teaching his ideas… He said that non-eternal attributes can subsist in Allah, and that Allah is ever-acting, and that an infinite chain of events is not impossible either in the past or the future. He split the ranks and cast doubts on the creed of the Muslims and incited dissension amongst them. He did not confine himself to creedal matters of theology, but transgressed the bounds and said that travelling to visit the tomb of the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) is a sin… The scholars agreed to imprison him for a long time, and the Sultan imprisoned him… and he died in prison. Then some of his followers started to promulgate his ideas and teach them to people in secret while keeping quiet in public, and great harm came from this.”

      [al-Zabidi, Ithaf al-Sada al-Muttaqin, 2:11. al-Zabidi is quoting from al-Subki’s al-Sayf al-Saqil fi al-Radd ‘ala ibn Zafil, see al-Rasa-il al-Subkiyya, 84-85]

       
      • Al-Asiri

        March 7, 2015 at 5:14 am

        Thank you for your response but please read the disclaimer at the beginning. No polemics please. I have refrained from posting much on aqidah as it usually descends into polemics which we are not going to resolve.

         
      • Ibn Masud

        March 7, 2015 at 7:12 am

        I did read that before posting which is why i posted it to begin with. Mariam webster defines Polemics as “a strong written or spoken attack against someone else’s opinions, beliefs, practices, etc.” You seem to have violated this with Hatim al-Awni’s comments in the video, which i considered offensive. What i posted was not an attack or opinion, but a historical account of events (which doesn’t fit into Websters definition) from Imam al Subki who was qualified to pass judgment in every Islamic respect on the matter. If i was attacking Ibn Taymiyah i wouldn’t have bothered to quote Imam Dahabi his student as stating He died on the Ashari Aqeedah i.e ahl al sunnah wal jamaa and not his earlier Hashwiyah Aqeedah, and rather proceeded to dissect his personal anthropomorphic opinions.

        It seems your definition of Polemics is anything that opposes error, while Allah in the Quran literal commands us to remove error, which supersedes your disclaimer by any definition you may hold.

        We can avoid polemics if you point out to people the origin of something, that way they won’t get lost in the semantics of the argument which they are not qualified to understand, this was the other reason i posted that historical account, Ibn Taymiyah’s works where blindly followed with out anyone actually doing any research into the history of his life, which was a symptom of Islamic publishing houses who would publish anything and everything they could find for money, this is the other side of the conversation people don’t get to see much and is responsible for much of what is occurring now.

        See the article, UNDERSTANDING ARABIC BOOK PUBLICATIONS: AN ENLIGHTENING CONVERSATION WITH SHAYKH HUSAIN KADODIA:

        http://attahawi.com/2009/05/12/understanding-arabic-book-publications-an-enlightening-conversation-with-shaykh-husain-kadodia/

        Its not hard to envision a three stooges movie being made out of this situation, people literally follow the first thing they read.

         
      • Al-Asiri

        March 7, 2015 at 11:12 am

        Al-salamu alaykum,

        You seem to have missed the point completely. If you would like to argue about aqidah please take it to a forum or somewhere else. That is not to say that I disagree with some of what you have said. However, it is a door to tribulation. Most on all camps are dogmatically entrenched and nothing one says will budge them. Your comments have justified the scarcity of my posts on aqidah.

        Wasalam

         
      • Ibn Masud

        March 7, 2015 at 1:46 pm

        Which ever word you meant you still ignored your own rule. Either way you wrong about the Issue of Aqeedah being unsolvable, it was solved some time ago by Allah himself. Much of these arguments revolve around the nature of creation and the Universe and these major questions have been solved by physics. Scholars who are mainly corrupted by governments these days stopped doing actual research work a long time ago and have been regurgitating what has been said for the past thousand years in a format that fosters arguments. Do you think real scholars from a thousand years ago where doing that or applying the latest knowledge they had to understand the Universe.

        Imam Tabari who was born 224Ah-d.310Ah (839-923AD), in his tarikh vol 1. was discussing the circular orbit of the sun and the moon around the earth and offering theories on the creation of the Universe, this was by 923AD, when do modern scholars say Man discovered the earth wasn’t flat?

        if within 300 years of the prophets (saws) death our scholars where applying themselves to science and Deen that says much about so called scholars of today who simply regurgitate stuff with all these modern discoveries just sitting there in front of them.

        Allah literally made it a promise in the Quran to the Kufar to unravel the mysteries of universe for them by the end of time, our time, and they are the ones who did this work which we see occurring around us.

        “In time We shall make them fully understand Our messages [through what they perceive] in the utmost horizons [of the universe] and within themselves, so that it will become clear unto them that this [revelation] is indeed the truth. [Still,] is it not enough [for them to know] that thy Sustainer is witness unto everything?”(41:53)

        He even mentions the method by which they would do it, by first studying the microscopic nature of the human body using microscopes mankind found he could study the upper parts of the horizons with telescopes, a development from microscopes, first seen in the gigantic Hubble telescope.

        Essentially Allah himself promised to solve the age old questions of Aqeedah which revolve around the nature of creation.

        Literally science, as Allah stated in the Quran, can prove which Aqeedah is correct, and the Ashari and Maturidi Aqeedah’s are both in line with modern physics.

        The point is you cant say the Questions of Aqeedah cant be solved, as it was unknown to you Allah himself promised to solve many of these questions in the Quran.

        The “RESEARCH PAPERS AND NOTES” section (pg.91) in the following work discusses Aqeedah and modern Physics,it shows how similar the Ashari and Maturidi Aqeedah’s are to modern quantum mechanics. On Page 158 it discusses the “The Islamic Quantum Structure of the Universe” which answers the question to what extent did muslim scholars discuss the quantum nature of the
        universe, quantum mechanics was only a recent development, but Imam Suhrawardi (d.1193, Imam al Ghazali d.1111) literally outlines from Islamic texts what modern physicist have said about how the subatomic Universe is structured.

        In this we will find that Allah guided Islams scholars to know his Universe while the Kufar proved it with science.

        https://sunnahmuakada.files.wordpress.com/2014/09/who-was-al-khidr2.pdf

        The work contains some minor mistakes and is due to updated, specifically section “7) Allah is the light of the Heavens and the Earth” which is on the verse of light in the Quran.

         
      • Ibn Masud

        March 7, 2015 at 2:16 pm

        Assalamu Alaikum….i missed replying to the salam.

         
  6. dawood

    January 23, 2015 at 10:07 pm

    There is also the Sharh al-Fiqh al-Akbar by al-Maghnisawi, a 16th century Ottoman Maturidi commentary on Abu Hanifa’s creedal text. This has also been (loosely) summarised/translated into English. As he was the teacher of the Ottoman sultans (and their families) in his time, it represents the Ottoman Hanafi/Maturidi trend, at least at an intermediate level.

     
    • Al-Asiri

      January 24, 2015 at 10:26 am

      Thank you for your contribution. There are many texts that could have been added, but the intent here was to be brief as indicated in the title. My own interest lies in the earlier period up to the 8th Century Hijri.

       
  7. m7ia

    February 9, 2015 at 5:10 am

    Shaykh, I noticed you wrote بيان اعتقاد أهل السنة as the title of Al-Tahawi’s work. I’ve also seen it titled بيان السنة والجماعة. Is there any tahqiq of the actual title?

     
    • Al-Asiri

      February 9, 2015 at 8:42 am

      Imam al-Tahawi himself mentions the title at the beginning of the text.

       
      • m7ia

        March 7, 2015 at 3:27 am

        Jazakum Allahu khayra. I’ve looked at some different editions, and have also seen بيان عقيدة أهل السنة والحماعة. (I never found any edition with بيان السنة والجماعة, though.)

         
      • Al-Asiri

        March 7, 2015 at 5:20 am

        Wa jazakum. The variations are in the manuscripts. My personal preference is for the text contained within Jubran’s commentary.

         
  8. Adeeb Shums

    March 16, 2015 at 5:03 am

    Are there any more you can to the maturidi lists or ash’ari? If the book is a bit more detailed or so.

     
    • Al-Asiri

      April 13, 2015 at 3:29 pm

      The aim was to be brief, as in the title.

       
  9. Adeeb Shums

    March 17, 2015 at 6:09 pm

    Are you going to do one post for studying hadith as well?

     
    • Al-Asiri

      April 13, 2015 at 3:29 pm

      We have a post on studying hadith 🙂

       
      • muhammad

        October 1, 2015 at 6:20 pm

        i searched the site and cant seem to find it please add a link ya sheikh

         
      • Al-Asiri

        October 5, 2015 at 5:22 pm

        It’s titled ulum al-hadith curriculum. If you google it should pop up in sha Allah.

         
  10. Fiaz Hussain

    June 1, 2015 at 7:17 am

    Sidi Al-Asiri, thank you for your effort in this post. Quick question, is there a comparative analysis of the these groups, a little deeper than what Abu Zahra (rahimullah) did in Tareekh ul-Mathaahib Islaamiya?

    Jzk

     
    • Al-Asiri

      June 1, 2015 at 9:58 am

      Wa jazakum. Good question. Most comparative analyses that I have seen tend to be subjective and written with the aim of championing one ‘aqidah school over the others. These studies have reached the point of over-saturation. There are a few doctoral theses that are interesting, but nothing to my knowledge like Abu Zahra’s seminal and objective study on the fuqaha and their schools, may Allah bless him. I shall ask around and report back if I find something along those lines in sha Allah.

       
  11. Waleed

    June 8, 2015 at 2:45 pm

    http://bilalaliansari.com/2015/05/30/suggested-texts-for-studying-maturidi-kalam/
    Thought this might be interesting, from a maturidi scholar in Chicago and hadith scholar, Shaykh Bilal Ali Ansari

     
    • Al-Asiri

      June 8, 2015 at 6:20 pm

      Thank you. It is of great relevance to this post. It is also nice to see that his recommendations are similar to mine.

       
      • Waleed

        June 11, 2015 at 10:20 pm

        Just thought readers would appreciate a bit of extra info on how exactly to go about the program (Teachers, which to read on one’s own etc.). And yeah, great minds think alike!

         
      • Waleed

        June 11, 2015 at 11:47 pm

        Have you thought of writing on “modern kalam” so to speak? Books dealing with different philoso[phies of today kind of like المذاهب التوحيدية والفلسفات المعاصرةby sh Booti (http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/6832986)
        ? I think for scholars and students (like myself) today this would be more beneficial, practically speaking. Do you have anything in mind?

         
      • Al-Asiri

        June 12, 2015 at 6:19 am

        There is a need for it, especially regarding modern atheism and the ideas of Darwin, Freud, Marx, Nietzsche, and more recently Bertrand Russell, Dawkins, etc. Quantum mechanics also raises questions about reality and fate that need addressing. Bouti did a decent job but I know of no modern book in Arabic that adequately addresses the aforementioned issues. I heard that some Turkish scholars have written excellent works. There are some books written by Christians in English too.

        The need is there and known about. In time I’m sure more will be done in Arabic from an Islamic perspective. And Allah knows best.

         
    • Waleed

      September 5, 2015 at 4:00 am

      Salam
      Here is a book I recently passed picked up at this masjid near me, with some pretty cool books that nobody really cared about .
      https://archive.org/details/TheIdeologyOfTheFutureByDrMuhammadRafiuddin

      Not sure of the authors background though. Never saw much of a problem

       
      • Ibn Masud

        September 5, 2015 at 5:47 am

        I wouldn’t put to much stock in a book written by someone who put’s his face as the front cover, it can’t represent anything islamic if the person doesn’t remind you of Allah.

        @ Al Asiri

        The second half of the Book Who was Al Khidr answers most of the crap stated by Europe’s enlightenment, It also answers many questions on modern Physics and Islam and the creation of the Universe including quantum mechanics.

        https://sunnahmuakada.wordpress.com/2014/08/29/who-was-al-khidr/

        The book Quantum Teleportation and the Uwaisi Transmission talks about quantum mechanics and how spiritual knowledge is passed on through the quantum universe.

        https://sunnahmuakada.wordpress.com/2014/07/19/quantum-teleportation-and-the-uwaisi-transmission/

        In the verse of Light (24:35) in the Quran Allah talks about how the Atom comes into existence and how Allah guides man through the quantum universe (or subatomic world).

        The book “The Light Of Allah In The Heavens and The Earth” is a tafsir of the verse of light and this subject.

        https://sunnahmuakada.wordpress.com/2015/06/22/the-light-of-allah-in-the-heavens-and-the-earth/

        The article “How The Human Body Learns and The Downward Spiral Of Western Medicine Over The Past 100 Years” is a Tafsir of ayah 33:45 “O Prophet! We have sent you…as an illuminating lamp”, literally modern medicine has discovered that the human body produces a strong electromagnetic field, this is the name for Light in physics, and Allah talks about this in this verse.

        https://sunnahmuakada.wordpress.com/2015/09/02/how-the-human-body-learns-and-the-downward-spiral-of-western-medicine-over-the-past-100-years/

        Because Light is a quantum particle, it becomes obvious why Allah in the verse of light explained (24:35) the quantum universe, because Allah guides man through his heart which is connected to the subatomic world through this field and in this regard He made the prophet (saws) like a lamp for other people. This is also clear in the fact that Fibril revealed the Quran to the prophets heart, not brain so their has to be a mechanism in the heart that is capable of receiving knowledge.

        Aqeedah in Islam deals with the creation of the Universe, but today physics deals with this subject, so through physics and the human body Allah states there is a connection between Aqeedah and the science Iman through a persons heart, which man needs to learn to achieve Ihsan, human perfection like the prophets (as).

         
  12. Al-Mizzi

    June 17, 2015 at 6:57 pm

    Al-salamu ‘alaykum,
    Jazakumullahu khayraa on this beautiful and informative site.

    Lastly, who counted al-‘izz’s sharh of al-tahawiyyah as being representative of Sunni creed? You mentioned in the preamble of your post that this is an overview of “Sunni schools” in ‘aqidah. The onus lies upon you to explain this since the specialists have said otherwise. Or else this implicit endorsement of this book being “Sunni” lies squarely upon your head along with the burden of whomever else is misled by it. This is not about your “disclaimer” of not desiring to enter into polemics. You yourself entered into “polemics” by knowingly stating controversial works and authors in this post when you could’ve easily settled for no post at all or with a post on other books that are not controversial. One who doesn’t desire polemics wouldn’t be so bold and blunt then cry “polemics!” when questioned. You might as well have stated al-waasitiyyah and nawaaqid al-Islam, et al. The tongue-in-cheek disclaimer is not a scapegoat. Please explain yourself dear brother.

     
    • Al-Asiri

      June 18, 2015 at 6:46 am

      Wa ‘alaykum al-salam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,

      May Allah bless us all this Ramadan!

      Sharh Ibn Abi al-‘Izz (d.792) is accepted by the Islamic universities in Saudi Arabia (if they aren’t Sunni then what are they?) as a curriculum text and is regarded as a Sunni text by non-Salafis, such as the contemporary Hanafi hadith master and expert researcher, Shu’ayb al-Arna’ut, and the general secretary of the Muslim World League and chair of the League of Islamic Universities, Dr. ‘Abd Allah b. ‘Abd al-Muhsin al-Turki. These are two of the highest regarded researchers, editors, and scholars in the Arab world today, and are acknowledged masters of hadith and fiqh. Their endorsements are more than enough to make Sharh Ibn Abi al-‘Izz a Sunni text. There are plenty more. I myself disagree with some of its contents, much as I disagree with some of the positions in other books in fiqh and other sciences. This does not mean they are not Sunni. Now, let’s make that the end of the matter and not ruin the opening of Ramadan with polemics. Wasalam.

       
      • Al-Mizzi

        June 19, 2015 at 12:01 am

        BaarakAllaahu feekum. And this exactly what I wanted from you: to simply clearly state an explanation of why you included it. Of course I don’t agree with your inclusion of it despite your explanation (and nor would any Sunni specialist of ‘aqeedah) but what we got now is an explanation (I.e. a true “disclaimer”) on the record for the benefit of our Sunni brothers and sisters to know that this work is not free from controversy whereas before you tried to knowingly pass it off as such. The same goes for your inclusion of al-ibaanah and the work by al-lalika’i. So thank you dear brother, kullu ‘aam wa antum bi-khayr!

         
      • eltamim

        June 23, 2015 at 4:02 pm

        Well said.

         
  13. al-Ash'ari

    July 17, 2015 at 11:35 pm

    Who is the judge of what is controversial or not? That’s very subjective in itself, not to mention that the tone of some of the writers clearly echoes subjectivity…

     
    • Al-Asiri

      July 18, 2015 at 7:52 am

      True objectivity is as rare as a winter swallow.

       
  14. Waleed

    August 16, 2015 at 3:21 am

    Salam
    What place do advanced arguments in kalam have today, as many have expressed their discontent with such books being include (be the book Athari, Ash’ari, or Maturidi), due to the antiquated material that no longer bears any relevance with the modern context that graduates are faced with. I am not by any means proficient in aqeedah, so I’d like to ask of your thoughts on the matter. Also, do you consider it essential for a student of knowledge to gain advanced proficiency in such subject matter, or is basic knowledge sufficient (Note:Not the “modern Kalam” I mentioned Earlier, as it makes sense that a student should be acquainted with such subject matter)

     

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